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Afenyo-Markin, Alexander

Constituency: Effutu
Region: Central Region
Party: NPP
Occupation/Profession:
Parliamentary Seat: minority

Date of Birth: May 27, 1978
Hometown: Winneba, Central Region
Highest Education: MA (International Politics and Security), University of Bradford, UK, 2010; LLB (Buckingham University, London, UK, 2006; BL (GSLI, 2009.
Profession: Lawyer /Security Expert
Last Employment: CEO, Excel Courier Ghana Limited, Accra
Marital Status: Married
Religion: Christianity (Catholic)
Votes Obtained: 19,062 votes out of the 26,764 valid votes cast = 51.85%. Others: Mike Allan Hammah (NDC) 16,977 =46.18%, Nana Ofori Owusu (PPP) 621 = 1.69%, Abdul-Rahim, Mohammed Sanni (PNC) 43= 0.12%, Kofi Bondzie Baidoo (CPP) 39 =0.11% and Kojo Bassaw (NDP) 22 =0.06%.

 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Winneba is traditionally known as ‘Simpa’ which was derived from the name of the leader of the Effutus ‘Osimpa’ who led the Effutus of the Guan ethnic stock from the Northern part of Ghana to the present location. The name Winneba originated from European Sailors who were often aided by favourable wind to sail along the bay. From the constant use of the words ‘windy bay’; the name Winneba was coined.  
 
The town was one of the first communities in the country to come in contact with European traders, it served as a port where foreign goods were discharged and transported to the interior and major commercial areas such as Agona Swedru and Akim-Oda.
 
Due to its role as harbor town and a place of early European settlers, it became the administrative capital of the then Central Province of the Gold Coast. The cocoa boom in the forest areas led to the relocation of major trading companies in the 1940s to Agona Swedru and this started affecting the growth of the town. The township suffered even greater loss when the Tema Harbour was completed; the port activities at Winneba were thus shut down and relocated to Tema. With that, most of the commercial activities also shifted from Winneba to Tema and Accra.
 
It is sandwiched by Gomao East district on its Western, Northern and Eastern flanks. The southern flank is the Gulf of Guinea.It covers a total land area of 64 square kilometers. It is located between latitudes 5°16’ and 20.18”N and longitudes 0°32’ and 48.32’’W of the eastern part of Central Region
 
TOURISM ATTRACTIONS
There are several popular festivals, monuments and tourism sites in the Municipality.
 
ABOAKYER FESTIVAL
Celebrated by the Chiefs and people of Effutu traditional area. It is celebrated in the first week of May with its climaxed on Saturday and it is the number one national festival. 
 
MASQUERADERS COMPETITION
It is an annual affair held on New Year’s Day at the Advanced Park. There are three main groups called Asafo companies.
 
FORTS AND CASTLES & HISTORICAL MONUMENTS
 
(a)  THE BLOWN UP WINNEBA FORT: The fort was blown up due to           misunderstanding between the people of Winneba and the Colonial        Governor. 
 
(b)   SEA PORT: Winneba was a colonial seaport. Its function declined completely after the construction of the Takoradi and Tema Harbours.
 
(c)  VESTIGES OF COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY: Old UTC Workshops and officers still exist.
 
(d)  WINNEBA PRISONS: This is part of Winneba Castle. A larger part of it has been lost to the sea. It is now used as a prison.
 
(e)  Ancient Dutch Armoury at Winneba.
 
(f)  First European Cemetery. It is located in Winneba.
 
(g)  Retreat ground for the Late Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah  (near the Muni Lagoon and ATTC)             
 
LAGOONS AND ESTUARIES: The notable ones are:
 
a. The Muni Lagoon in Winneba – It is a sanctuary for migratory birds which come here to escape the biting winters and darkness of the Arctic and Antarctic. The birds go back after the summer.
 
b. The Estuary of the Ayensu River n Winneba.
 
SACRED GROVES AND SHRINES
There are several sacred groves and shrines scattered throughout the Municipality. The most notable shrine is Penkye Otu. (The principal god behind the Aboakyer Festival).
 
INVESTMENT BUSINESS POTENTIALS
 
The constituency is endowed with immense investment potential which is yet to be fully tapped.
The constituency has vast stretches of arable land suitable for commercial farming in non-traditional export crops like pineapple, cashew, cassava, vegetables and maize. There is also the potential for livestock production and poultry. Fishing and fish processing, rank among the major occupations in the constituency. Senya Bereku and Winneba in the constituency are among the key fishing towns in the country.
 
With Accra becoming congested as a result of industrial and commercial activities, strategically placed towns like Kasoa, Awutu and Winneba, which lie on the proposed dual carriageway from Yamoransa, through Winneba in the Central Region to Accra, have the potential to guarantee ideal satellite industrial and residential development bases to Accra.
 
There is already a 260-acre industrial zone known as Iron City being developed as a light industrial area in Kasoa. The proximity of these towns to Accra provides a favourable investment environment in terms of swift communication, as well as easy access to government business and offices.
 
LOCATION AND SIZE
 
It is sandwiched by Gomoa East District Assembly on its Western, Northern and Eastern flanks. On the Southern flank is the Gulf of Guinea. 
 
The administration capital is Winneba, a town renowned for its several specialized major institutions of higher learning that it contains.
 
Winneba, the Municipal center was one of the first communities in the country to come in contact with European traders. Because of its location, it served as a port where foreign goods were discharged and transported to the interior and major commercial areas such as Agona Swedru and West Akim. 
 
Due to its role, it became the administrative capital of the then Central Province of the Gold Coast. 
 
The relocation of major trading companies in the 1940s to Agona Swedru started affecting the growth of the town. 
 
The township suffered even greater loss when the Tema Harbour was completed; the port activities at Winneba were thus shut down and relocated to Tema. With that, most commercial activities also shifted from Winneba to Tema and Accra.
 
TOPOLOGY AND DRAINAGE
 
Topography The topography of the Municipal is characterized by isolated undulated highlands located around the Effutu constituency. 
 
The lowlands are found along the coastline-Senya and Winneba areas with isolated hills. The nature of topography is directly related to the soil nature. 
 
Thus the highlands and lowlands are directly related to loamy soil and clay soils respectively.
 
Drainage
The drainage in the highland is not intensive as compared to the lowlands areas. The two major rivers namely Ayensu and Gyahadze enter the sea at Woarabeba and Opram respectively, thus causing much flooding during rainy season. 
 
There are also streams that traverse the lowland plain stretching from Winneba to the Senya Coastal plains.
 
The rivers along the coastal plain have the potentials to be exploited for extensive vegetable cultivation during the dry seasons. 
 
This when exploited would reduce poverty amongst settlers along the rivers. Muni Lagoon is a Ramser site and has a high potential for salt production.
 
GEOLOGY AND SOIL
 
Soil Characteristics
The municipal is underlain by Birimian Rocks which consist of granites and phylites. The area is basically low-lying with protruding granitic rocks in some areas. In the semi-deciduous forest zones, the soil type is characterized by the loamy soil which support many plants and therefore suitable for crop production.
 
These plants include cassava, plantain, yam, maize, cocoa, cola-nuts, pineapples, citrus and pawpaw. It is therefore, not surprising that the Presidential Special Initiative on large scale production of cassava for starch export to reduce poverty in the constituency located in this zone.
 
Soils found in the Southern Zone are characterized by clay with high salinity and therefore do not support many plants. 
 
This zone supports animals rearing. The animals that thrive in the coastal savannah zone include cattle, sheep, goats, fowls and pigs. This zone therefore is conducive for animals and dairy products and large-scale production is yet to be exploited on.
 
CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The municipal experiences two rainfall patterns: the major rainy season (April to July) and minor rainy season (September to November). In other words, the municipal experiences a five month dry season starting from November to March and followed by seven month rainy season from April to October.
 
The rainfall figures of the municipal are quite low (40cm – 50cm) along the coastal but are higher in the hinterlands with the mean annual rainfall ranging between 50cm and 70 cm.
 
The mean annual minimum and maximum temperature of 220C and 280C coupled with the rainfall pattern favour cultivation of many crops such as cassava, plantain, maize, yam, pawpaw, cocoa and palm trees, particularly in the semi-deciduous forest areas. The municipal experiences two wind systems viz. the South-West Monsoon and North-East Trade Winds (Harmattean Wind).
 
The former often brings rains while the latter is accompanied by dry conditions. The high temperatures and dry conditions along the coast also favour salt winning from the lagoons.
 
Vegetation
The vegetation of the municipality is made up of semi-deciduous forest and coastal savannah grassland. About 70% of the municipality is of semi-deciduous forest with cocoa and palm trees constituting the major crops cultivated.
 
This forest covers areas surrounding Bontrase, Bawjiase and Osaekrodua. The coastal savannah grassland is found along the Southern Coastal lands extending from Winneba to Senya the types of vegetation, to a greater extent, influence the kinds of economic activities of the people.
 
Hence, any programme towards poverty reduction should take into consideration these vegetation zones. It is in this respect that the Presidential Cassava Special Initiative is located to the forest area (around Bawjiase) where cassava strives very well and to the coastal zone, the establishment of the Presidential Salt Initiative towards poverty reduction.
 

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