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Full Constituency Details
 
 

Shai Osudoku

Region: Greater Accra Region
Member of Paliament: Assumeng, Tetteh David

 Location & Size:

The Shai Osudoku constituency is situated in the Southeastern part of Ghana, lying between latitude 5° 45’ south and 6° 05’ North and Longitude 0° 05’ East and 0° 20’ West. The constituency has a total land area of 1,442 square kilometres, making it the largest in the Greater Accra Region. The land size represents 41.5% of the regional land area.
The constituency shares boundaries with the Yilo Krobo constituency on the North- West, North-Tongu constituency on the North-East, Akwapim-North constituency on the West, Tema constituency on the South-West and Dangme-East constituency on the East.
 
The north-eastern and the southern portions of the constituency are washed by the Volta River and the Atlantic Ocean respectively. The constituency has a coastline stretching over 37 kilometres.
 
Topology & Drainage
 
Topography
The constituency forms the central portions of the Accra plains. The relief is generally gentle and undulating, a low plain with heights not exceeding 70 metres. The plains are punctuated in isolated areas by a few prominent inselbergs, isolated hills, outliers and knolls scattered erratically over the area.
 
Prominent relief features include the Yongua inselberg (427 metres) which appears conical in the air with a number of outliers close to the north of the constituency around Asutsuare and Osuwem areas; the Krabote inselberg also to the North and the Shai Hills (289 metres) found towards the western portions of the constituency.
 
Large rock outcrops and boulders are conspicuously placed in the vicinity of the hills in certain places. The rocky hills together with the large boulders provide immense potentials for stone quarrying, which is already a major pre-occupation in the constituency.
 
The Akwapim mountain range in the northwestern parts of the constituency presents a striking relief feature of outstanding natural beauty. It also accounts for a micro- rain shadow effect that influences the climate of Dodowa and the immediate surroundings.
 
The eastern foothills of the range have fairly deep well-drained and relatively fertile hilly soils. The foothills constitute one of the most largely cropped Dortions of the constituency.
 
Drainage
The general pattern of drainage in the Shai Osudoku constituency is dendritic with most of the streams taking their source from the Akwapim range which is also serving as a watershed and then flow in a northwest to southwest direction into lagoons on the coast.
 
Flowing over a fairly low terrain, most of the streams have carved wide valleys for themselves, which are left dry for most parts of the year. The very seasonal nature of most of the streams caused by high emperatures and equally high insulation levels have encouraged the creation of a number of artificial dams and ponds of varying size, used for irrigation and for the watering of livestock.
 
Prominent among these are the Volta River Dam at Natriku, Dawhenya Dam on the Dekyidor stream at Dawhenya both of which provides ample water for irrigation farming. Other smaller dams include those at Agortor, Fiakonya and Odumse.
 
The extreme northeastern portions of the constituency forms part of the lower Volta flood plain. The repeated process of flooding and recession of the Volta waters over the years have left behind fertile alluvial soils, a fairly vast sedimentary strata of oyster shells and a number of inland lakes notably the Kasu, Nyapia, Dzipor and Nyatia lakes all located within the marshy basin of the Narbayi stream.
constituency are quiet low and saline. The greater part of the constituency therefore relies on pipe-borne water from Kpong.
 
Climate & Vegetation
 
Climate
The Southeastern coastal plain of Ghana, which encompasses the Shai Osudoku constituency, is one of the hottest and driest parts of the country. Temperatures are however subjected to occasional and minimal moderating influences along the coast and altitudinal influences affected by the Akwapim range in the northwest.
 
Temperatures are appreciably high for most parts of the year with the highest during the main dry season (November - March) and lowest during the short dry season (July - August). They average a few degrees lower on the coast and close to the Akwapim range than they do over most of the plains. The absolute maximum temperature is 40° C.
 
The most complete absence of cloud cover for most parts of the year gives way to very high rates of evaporation which leaves most parts of the constituency dry and with parched soils. The combined effects of high temperatures and high insulation levels, on the other hand, are of invaluable asset to the salt-making industry, as they account for the high and rapid rates of salinization and crystallization crucial for the winning of salt. They also provide enormous potentials for solar power development.
 
Rainfall is generally very low with most of the rains, very erratic in nature and coming mostly between September and November. Mean annual rainfall increases from 762.5 millilitres on the coast to 1220 millilitres to the North and Northeast close to the foothills of Akwapim Rang and on the summit.
 
The unreliability and dependence of farmers on the rainy seasons makes farming a vulnerable occupation. Periodic main crop failures are common phenomena even in the better- watered northern parts. It is obvious therefore that the provision of irrigation facilities would be of great value in the constituency. This should be accompanied by soil salinit control measures.
 
 
Vegetation
The predominant vegetation type found in the constituency is of the short grass savannah interspersed with shrubs and short trees, a characteristic of the Sub- Sahelin type. A large portion of vegetation remains dry for most parts of the year particularly towards the south except for the short rainy season.
 
The ravaging effects of seasonal bushfires that sweep across most parts of the constituency especially during the dry season further depreciate the quality of the vegetation.
 
Along some stream courses, however, higher vegetation type ranging from thickest to light forest are common. Some light forest with tall trees is also found along the foothills of the Akwapim Range especially around Dodowa, Ayikuma and Agomeda areas. There is a Forest and Game and Wildlife Reserve around the Shai hills.
 
Large strands of Borassus Palm are found around the eastern portions of Dodowa and Ayikuma. Isolated stands of baobab trees are common all over the plain. In the Volta flood plain areas, tall swampy grass and tall grass savannah with isolated patches of thicket and trees represent the main vegetation type.
 
Geology & Soil
 
Geology
Ancient igneous rocks underly the major part of the constituency. Strongly metamorphosed ancient sediments occur along the western boundary. There are also important areas of relatively young unconsolidated sediments in the south and southeast. Dahomeyan gneiss and schist’s occupy most of the plains proper. Basic gneiss forms a number of large inselbergs (isolated rocky hills) in the north and center of the belt.
 
Small rock outcrops are also common in the north close to the inselbergs but are rare in south and southeast. The eastern belt of acidic gneiss consists mainly of the grained metamorphosed rocks rather richer in minerals than the rocks in the western belt and with many fewer quarts veins.
 
Recent alluvium occupies the Volta flood plains and the valleys of the major streams on the plain. There are no known mineral deposition of commercial and economic value in the area, except for oyster shell deposits at Volivo and its surroundings and clays of various types occurring in different places used for pottery and for the making of tiles and bricks.
 
Soil And Suitability For Agriculture
 
The predominant soil types in the constituency are the black clays classified as Akuse series and occupies the central to eastern parts of the constituency. The soils are highly elastic when wet but become hard and compact when dry and then crack vertically from the surface. This renders the soil unsuitable for hand cultivation.
 
Cultivation in the Akuse series dominated areas is confined mainly to small amounts of subsistence cropping of cassava, okro, maize and other vegetables. The short type grassland covering the Akuse series provides extensive grazing fields.
 
The Black clays are considered highly suitable for development mechanized irrigation farming. At the gentle foot slopes of the Akwapim Range north of Dodowa, Agomeda and Ayikuma occurs an accumulation of slope wash from the hills.
 
The slope wash material consists predominantly of the Oyarifa series. These are deep, red, well-drained loamy soils. Here crops such as cassava, cocoyam and to a larger extent maize are best suited. Mangoes are also largely grown in the Dodowa areas
 
The soil types, which occur further east of Dodowa, within the Doryumu and Kordiabe areas, are of the Simpa-Doryumu-Agortor-Association. These are brownish gray, slight humus, medium or coarse sand, underlain by a hard porous gristly loam.
 
The soils have low nutritional status and are quick in becoming parched after the end of the rainy season. Main crops grown here include pepper, okro, watermelon and maize.
 
Other soil types identifiable are those classified locally as the Agortor series found on the extreme eastern to south-eastern part of the constituency around Agortor, Dawa and Minya.
 
The soil here consists of gray-brown soils loamy for about 15-30 centimeter the surface than abruptly changing to an impervious clay which contains lime concretion below a depth of 60 centimeters. The topsoil rapidly becomes draughty during the dry seasons.
 
This type of soil fairly supports any level of crop production. Most parts of the area are, however, left for grazing purposes. In the extreme north and northeast of the constituency occurs the Volta Alluvium, which makes up the Volta flood plain.
 
The soil classified as an association of Amo and Tefle series consists more or less have poorly drained pale-coloured sandy silty and clay soils developed in recent or contemporary Volta Alluvium.
 
The soils appear to be moderately well supplied with nutrients under natural conditions and are easily workable even with simple implements. A greater portion of it in recent past was placed under extensive sugar cane cultivation to feed the now collapsed Asutsuare Sugar Factory.
 
The same fields are currently place under extensive rice cultivation making the flood plain soils, one of the most fertile soils in the Shai Osudoku coinstituency.
 
At the coastal south, the predominant soil type is associated with coastal sand dunes, backed by a discontinuous series of narrow, saline or brackish lagoons. These soils to some extent support coconut growth.
 
Lastly, the type of soil classified as Toje-Agortor series covers the area along the road to Ada and located at the southern sections of the Agortor series. It is made up of a mixture of red soils developed over tertiary deposits on the uplands and gray-brown impervious clays of Agortor series. These soils absorb moisture freely except when left bare.
 
Under the prevailing climatic conditions, they tend to be draughty in the topsoil, but lower layers have a good moisture storage capacity. These soil, to some extent, are favoured for cultivation as they are easily workable.
 
However, the application of frequent cover crops or the addition of farmyard manure will be essential if intensified crop production is to be maintained.
 
Tourism Attractions
 
Tourist Sites, Beach Resorts 
The Shai Osudoku constituency in totality is a Tourism Destination with Historic Rain Forest, Ancestral Home Caves, Relics, Wild life, Distinctive Festivals, Forts and a Beautiful Gulf of Guinea Sealine.
 
MAJOR TOURIST SITES
The Dodowa Forest 
This is the battle-field of the Kantamanso war which ended in 1826. The defeat of the Great Ashanti Warriors on the 7th of August 1826 marked the end of Ashanti domination of the Gold Coast now Ghana. This Forest has three bowels: The face-washing;  the divination;  and the bullet collector; bowls on display. These were used in various ways to snatch victory from the Ashantes.
 
The Great Baobab tree into which the shais with their allies emptied their "spiritually" loaded guns, three (3) weeks after the actual battle, on the 26th August, 1826, welcomes tourists at the outskets of the Dodowa township.
 
The camouflaged trenches which swallowed the Ashanti warriors, the Fetish Shrine in the middle of the forest, the Tsenku Waterfalls to the north of the Forest in the Akwapim Ranges all exist for the Tourists to visit explore and enjoy.
 
The Oyikum Ancestral Grove – Adumanya
This grove with tall trees, winding "big" ropes and various wild-life is a taboo forest where no tree either dead or alive should be cut. Recently part has been turned into an apiary (bee -farm) for the production of honey and other related products. Only 4 kilo metres to the north of Dodowa.
 
The Shai Hills Resources Reserve
This is the place you come face to face with some of Ghana’s most interesting wildlife within less than 40 minutes drive from Accra. This Reserve combines Natural conservation. Rich Cultural Interests and Archeological sites - Ancestral Homes (caves) relics artifacts with splendid scenic beauty created by the evergreen forest on the hills surrounded by savanna plains. 
 
You are offered a place of relaxation, entertainment and wonder on the hills at the Ancestral-Home Museum of the Dangme Se (Shai) between 1000 and 1892. Come into the caves - Hioweyo-cave, Bonuteh-cave and Sehyo-cave and catch a glimpse of the insectivorous bats. Or is it the shy and secretive oribis - bush bucks, fast antelopes, the daring baboons or reptiles, or the plethora of beautifully coloure butterflies that you watch without stopping. 
 
The kobs in this reserve have a special significance for the Dangme Shai (Se) - the Dipo fertility initiants sit on the Kob-skin (hide) for purification, cleansing and this induces fertility. Easy to locate - 50km north east of Accra on the Tema - Akosombo trunk road. A surprise awaits you. Be there! You will love it!
 
The Osuwem Shrine & Osuyom (Ancestral Home)
Osuwem is about an hour drive from Accra through Akuse, Asutusare trunk road off Accra Akosombo road. Osuwem house a very wonderful shrine which is fenced yearly in May. The shrine traces its ancestry from South-eastern comer of Egypt. The shrine’s
Festival coincides with the Dzehayem Festival of the Chiefs and people of the Osudoku in the 2nd week of May every year. Here the fetish priest clad in emarculate white cloth around his loins and wearing white beads mostly of cowries shells and besmeared with kaolion ’prays" for the Osudokus and their neighbours for prosperity in the following year.
 
The Osuyom    
This was the Ancestral Home of the Osudokus until after 1892. Just before the climb to the Osuyom is the Asase-Dzuam - "the Swallowing Market. "Then on getting to the Durbar grounds of the people, you face the Hesehe- "Stone-traps. Through the stone traps you get onto a plateau where the people gather.
 
The sitting places of the Paramount Chief, the Omanklalo, the Asafoatse were distinctively marked with stones by the ancestors. Exhortion Shines, Owari-stones (Mikomie) Fufu-pounding and millet pounding stones. A most wonderful Hanging-well served and still serve as the only source of water the people used up on the mountain. Use this water, for it is reputed to give fertility to all who use it.
 
The Volivo Oyster-Shells Mines
A vast area of pure coral reef of shells for paint production.
 
Others are:
Nene Wablao Shrine - Osuwem;
The Dzange Shrines - Old Ningo;
Polo Grounds - New Ningo;
Natriku Yachting & Boat racing & other water sports.
 
The Coast-Line
The Shai Osudoku constituency has one of the most active and picturesque beach lives. Set up in the Gulf of Guinea, Prampram, new Ningo, Old Ningo and Ahwiam are alive to fishing activities through out the year- paddling of canoes, dragging mending of nests, selling and buying of fish and other commodities. Real fishing-life. Come and enjoy the Fresh Sea Breeze with its accompanying free sun shine!
 
The Beaches are naturally decorated with beautiful coconut trees, ago-beam trees, raffia palon trees, rocks, sea weeds coral reefs of various shells and white sparkling sand and silver sand. Beach Resorts
 
The Sealane Hotel and The Golden Beach at Prampram, the Polo Grounds of New Ningo. The "Corn Cee" Resort at New Ningo the Djange Shrines of Old Ningo warmly welcome you. Come and Be at Peace with Nature.
 
Festivals
The Shai Osudoku constituency is made up of four (4) Traditional Areas, namely - Shai, Great Ningo, Prampram and Osudoku. The areas have four distinctive colourful Festivals.
The Ngmayem Festival of the Dangme Shai-last week of September  
Djangedom/Homowo of the Great Ningo - July and August
The Kpledom/Homowo Festival of the Prampram - July and August and 
The Dzehayem Festival of the Osudoku-first Friday of May yearly.
All these Festivals are marked with very colourful durbars amidst traditional drumming and dancing, chief parading in palanquins, hoisting of state - umbrellas. The use of various traditional stools, Linguist-stick staffs, state swords, the wearing of ornaments (gold, silver and beads) tattoos, with various meanings and various types of kente and velvets on display. Splendour, pomp and pageantry!
 
Agricultural Sector
 
The constituency has 22km of the Lower Volta River running through and along the Northern to Eastern boundaries. About 45,600ha of the land is currently under cultivation with about 2,200 hectares under
irrigation.
 
The vegetation is mainly coastal savannah with a small transitional zone along the foothills of the Akwapim Range. The soil type is mainly of the heavy Akuse series with sandy and sandy-loams in certain areas.   The rainfall pattern is bimodal and the main agricultural activities undertaken are livestock and crop production, fish production, fishing and fish processing and other agro-
processing activities.
 
Crops production includes maize, cassava, rice, tomatoes, garden eggs, okra, pepper, watermelon, sugarcane, banana, pineapple, pawpaw and exotic vegetables (for export). Tree crops grown are mainly mangoes with a few small- scale cashew plantations in the Ningo area.
 
Livestock production comprise of cattle, sheep and goats with a large local poultry population, some medium scale holdings (ASAS, Sapporo Farms, Ratio Farms etc.) and few commercial holdings (e.g. Gateway (AAH) McBaron for Ostiches, Farmer George for broiler production etc.)
 
Fish production in inland waters is undertaken by Tropo Farms, a privately owned business enterprise and Aqua Agric, a development NGO with a few dams and dugouts being stocked with fish by the communities. Marine fishing and traditional fish processing are the main activity undertaken along the 37km stretch of coastline. 
 
The constituency is also home to a prolific beekeeping activity that produces arguably the best honey in the country. The District, in spite of its proximity to the national capital is basically rural with a poor state of socio-economic and infrastructure development.
 
By virtue of its strategic location, that is the nearness to urban Accra and Tema which have the airport and sea port respectively and the Volta Lake Transport System that links the South to the North. 
 
The Agricultural Sector
The sector aims at establishing a modem robust and diversified agricultural sector that ensures national food security and an adequate supply of agricultural raw materials at competitive prices for industries and export.
 

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